Stati che hanno abolito la pena di morte

Dal 1764 ai giorni nostri l’elenco degli Stati che hanno abolito la pena di morte in ordine cronologico, a cura di Claudio Giusti.

 

Countries that have abolished the death penalty


“Capital punishment will be abolished, because the trend is inevitable”

Angus Maude, Tory MP, 1956

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1956/jun/28/title

 

1764, “Dei delitti e delle pene” by Cesare Beccaria.

1785, Last execution in Liechtenstein.

1786 30th November, Tuscany abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1787, Capital punishment abolished in Austria: restored in 1795.

1791, 30th May, Maximilien Robespierre’s discours contre la peine de mort.
1792, 25th April, France, first execution with the guillotine.

1825 – 1917, the Grand Duchy of Finland is a de-facto abolitionist country.
1835, Cape Verde last execution.

1847, 1st March, Michigan abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes. The most ancient abolitionist jurisdiction, with no executions since 1837.
1847, 4th October, Tuscany abolished again the death penalty.
1848, 15th September, Victor Hugo’s discours contre la peine de mort a l’assemblée constituante.

1848, Swiss Canton Freiburg  and San Marino abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes (1468, last execution in San Marino)

1848 – 1870, Eleven German principalities were abolitionist: Bremen, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Nassau, Oldenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Waldeck.

1849, 4th July, The Roman Republic abolished the death penalty for all crimes (Const. Art 5.)
1852 Rhode Island abolished death penalty for all crimes, reinstated in 1873, abolished  in 1984. No executions since 1845.

1853, Wisconsin and Argentina* abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1854 Swiss Canton Neuchatel abolished death penalty

1859, 30th April, Tuscany abolished again the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1862, Greece abolished the death penalty, later reintroduced.

1863, Venezuela abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1863, Belgium, last execution for an ordinary crime.
1865, San Marino abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1865, 13th March, The Italian House voted the abolition of the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1866 – 1930, Romania abolitionist for ordinary crimes.
1867, Portugal abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1870, The Netherland abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1874 – 1879 Switzerland is abolitionist.

1877, Costa Rica abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1877, Italy is a de facto abolitionist country.

1882, Brazil* abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1884, Portugal is the first country to abolish life imprisonment.

1885, Last execution in Minnesota (abolitionist de jure since 1911)

1887, Maine abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1890, 6th August, first execution with the electric chair: William Kemmler, New York.

1890 – 1926, Italy, with Zanardelli’s Code, is abolitionist for ordinary crimes.

1897, Ecuador abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1903, Panama abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1905, Norway abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1906, Ecuador abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1907, Uruguay abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1910, Colombia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1917 – 1920, Revolutionary Russia is abolitionist.

1921, Sweden abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1921, Argentina* abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1922, Queensland abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1924, The Dominican Republic abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1926 – 1947, The death penalty came back in Italy.
1927, August 23, Massachusetts, Sacco and Vanzetti.

1928, Iceland abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1929, Puerto Rico abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1933, Denmark abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1941, New Zealand abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes, restored in 1950.
1942, Switzerland abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1944 – 1945, in Italy the death penalty is abolished and re-introduced.

1947, Italy abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1947 – 1950, USSR is abolitionist for ordinary crimes.
1949, The Federal Republic of Germany abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1949, Finland abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1950, Austria and Israel abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1950, 9th March. UK, execution of the innocent Timothy Evans.

1953, 13th June, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg electrocuted.

1954, Greenland abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1954, Last execution in Papua New Guinea.

1955, New South Wales (Aus.) abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1955, Réflexions sur la peine capitale, par Arthur Koestler et Albert Camus.

1956, Honduras abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1956 – 1959, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) is abolitionist.

1957, Alaska and Hawaii are abolitionist.

1960, 2nd May, Caryl Chessman executed.

1961, 28th May, Amnesty International.

1961, New Zealand abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1961, Mexico, last execution. Federal civil jurisdiction and 24 States on 29 are abolitionist.

1962, Monaco abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1962, Last executions in Canada.

1963, Michigan abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1964, Last British executions.

1965, Iowa and West Virginia are abolitionist.

1965, 9th of November, Great Britain abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1966, Salomon Islands abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1968, Austria abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1969, 18th December, Murder Abolition Act, Great Britain confirms the abolition.

1969, Holy See abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1971, Malta abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1972, Abolition of corporal punishment in Canada
1972, Finland abolished the death penalty for all crimes
1972, 29th June, Furman Decision.
1973, Sweden abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1973, United Kingdom abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1974, Niue abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1975, Sweden Constitutionally prohibited the death penalty

 

1976, 2nd July, Gregg Decision.

1976, 14th July, In the days of Gregg, Canada abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1976, Portugal abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1977, 17th January, First execution under new American capital laws: Gary Gilmore shot in Utah.

1977, Amnesty International declared herself total abolitionist.

1977. UN Declaration against torture.

1977 10th September, Last French execution
1977, December 1st, Bermuda: the last execution under British rule worldwide.

1978, Denmark and Tuvalu abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Spain abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1979, Kiribati, Luxembourg, Nicaragua and Norway abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Brazil, Fiji and Peru abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1980, Vanuatu abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1981, France and Cape Verde abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1982, 7th December, first American execution with lethal injection.

1982, The Netherlands abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1982, Protocol No. 6 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms concerning the abolition of the death penalty.

1983, Cyprus and El Salvador abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1984, Argentina and Australia abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1984, the death penalty was outlawed in the Finnish Constitution.

1984, UN Convention against Torture.

1984, ECOSOC guaranties.

1986, Marshall Islands and Micronesia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1987, Haiti and the German Democratic Republic (DDR) abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Liechtenstein abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

1987, Philippines abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes, but reinstated it in 1999.
1987, 30th June, Last attempt to re-introduce the death penalty in Canada

1989, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Romania and Slovenia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1989, 15th December, Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR
1990, Andorra, Croatia, the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Mozambique, Namibia and Sao Tomé and Príncipe abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Nepal abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1991, Macedonia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

1992, Angola, Switzerland and Paraguay (de-facto abolitionist since 1928) abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1993, Guinea-Bissau, Hong Kong and Seychelles abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1993, The death penalty was abolished in Gambia but re-introduced in 1995

1994, Last attempt to re-introduce the death penalty in the United Kingdom.

1994, Italy and Palau abolished the death penalty for all crimes.  

 

Half the countries in the world have abolished the death penalty in law or practice.[1]

 

1995, Djibouti, Macau, Mauritius, Moldova and Spain abolished the death penalty for all crimes. South Africa abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1996, Belgium (1863 de-facto abolitionist) abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1997, Georgia, Nepal, Poland and South Africa abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Greece abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
1998, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Estonia, Lithuania and the United Kingdom abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
1999, Bermuda, East Timor, Turkmenistan and Ukraine abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Latvia abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
2000, Cote D’Ivoire and Malta abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Albania abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
2001, Bosnia-Herzegovina abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Chile abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

2002, Protocol No. 13 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances

2002, Cyprus and Yugoslavia (now three states Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro) abolished the death penalty for all crimes.  Turkey abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
2003, Armenia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
2004, Bhutan, Greece, Samoa, Senegal and Turkey abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
2005, Mexico abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Liberia abolished the death penalty for all crimes but re-introduced in 2008.

2006, Philippines abolished (again) the death penalty for all crimes.
2007, Albania, Cook Islands, Kyrgyzstan and Rwanda abolished the death penalty for all crimes. Kazakhstan abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes.

2007, Italy cancel the word capital punishment from its Constitution.
2008, Uzbekistan and Argentina abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
2009, Bolivia, Burundi and Togo abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

2010, Gabon and Australia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.
2012, Latvia abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

2015, Madagascar, Fiji, Mongolia and Suriname abolished the death penalty for all crimes.

 

* Argentina (1853, 1921) and Brazil (1882) abolished the death penalty, but reintroduced it for politically motivate crimes in the first and second half of the Twentieth Century: there were not executions, but thousands of “desaparecidos”.

 

Voyez, examinez, réfléchissez. Vous tenez à l’exemple. Pourquoi? Pour ce qu’il enseigne. Que voulez-vous enseigner avec votre exemple? Qu’il ne faut pas tuer. Et comment enseignez-vous qu’il ne faut pas tuer? En tuant.

Victor Hugo, Discours prononcé à l’Assemblée Constituante, 15 septembre 1848

http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Plaidoyer_contre_la_peine_de_mort_-_Victor_Hugo  

 

Dott. Claudio Giusti

www.astrangefruit.org

https://www.facebook.com/claudio.giusti.545

Member of the Scientific Committee of Osservatorio sulla Legalità e i Diritti, Claudio Giusti had the privilege and the honour to participate in the first congress of the Italian Section of Amnesty International: later he was one of the founders of the World Coalition Against The Death Penalty. He writes on a regular basis about human rights, death penalty and American criminal law.


 


[1]  97 countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. 97 other countries retain and use the death penalty.

FACTS AND FIGURES ON THE DEATH PENALTY. 30 June 1995.  AI Index: ACT 50/04/95

https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/act50/004/1995/en/ 

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